Category: wjumcubx

Presentations on possible effect of oil and gas activity on ground and surface waterPresentations on possible effect of oil and gas activity on ground and surface water

first_imgDr. Wendling plans to discuss how groundwater moves between aquifers, and how drilling and fracking could impact aquifers and watersheds in northeast B.C.He will first present in Fort St. John tonight, January 14, from 7:30 to 9:30 p.m. at the Quality Inn Northern Grand, and then in Hudson’s Hope on Wednesday, January 16 from 7 to 9 p.m. at the curling rink. After his Hudson’s Hope stop, there will be a discussion of an offer by a chemistry professor from the University of Alberta to analyze gas in domestic well water. Dr. K. Muehlenbachs proposes an “isotopic” analysis, which could document changes if a well has gassy water.- Advertisement –last_img

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Arsenal fail to tighten grip on top four with defeat at EvertonArsenal fail to tighten grip on top four with defeat at Everton

first_img Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City Dominic Calvert-Lewin’s header from Lucas Digne’s 10th-minute long throw was half-blocked but the ball dropped through the crowd to Jagielka who prodded home Everton’s 800th Premier League home goal from three yards.The goal – and the home win over Chelsea last time out – gave Everton the confidence to take the game by the scruff of the neck.They were helped, however, by their opponents’ inability to gain a foothold in midfield with Andre Gomes spraying passes at will and Idrissa Gana Gueye covering the hard yards.Up front Calvert-Lewin’s incessant running has proved a handful for many centre-backs this season and his boundless energy was no different for Sokratis Papastathopoulos and Shkodran Mustafi, both of whom struggled with his pace and aerial capability. Jagielka tapped the ball home after it deflected off Sead Kolasinac After waiting more than two years for victory over a top-six club, Marco Silva’s side have now recorded two in as many home games, while a first league defeat in two months for Arsenal leaves their fourth-place vulnerable to Chelsea – level on points – who play West Ham on Monday.Unai Emery’s side managed just two shots on target and the only surprise was that after going a 16th-consecutive top-flight away match without a clean sheet – for the first time since February 1985 – they did not concede more.One goal should not have been enough to beat a team with this much talent but it was as Jagielka’s fourth appearance of the season – and his first at Goodison Park in 11 months proved to be a blessing in disguise. REVEALED huge blow Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card LATEST PREMIER LEAGUE NEWS Goalkeeper Jordan Pickford – who was disciplined in the week for his involvement in a bar fracas in the early hours of Monday – was put under little pressure but was keeping things simple none-the-less and his range kicking frequently picked out Calvert-Lewin or an advanced Digne.Emery had to change things and he did so at half-time as he swapped Mohamed Elneny and Sead Kolasinac for Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang and Aaron Ramsey in switching to a flat back four and two up front.Pickford, a virtual spectator in the first half, failed his first challenge after the break when he came to punch Ramsey’s header but weakly returned the ball to the midfielder who wastefully volleyed over. 3 Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT deals Ramsey had an effect in swinging the midfield balance back towards Arsenal but with wingers Bernard and Richarlison diligently tracking back, the spaces were just not there.And with Calvert-Lewin continuing to win everything in the air, Arsenal were far from comfortable at the back, although Gylfi Sigurdsson, Richarlison and Bernard could all have put the match to bed in the final 20 minutes.That they were allowed to get away with their misses showed just how toothless the Gunners were with Pickford not having to make a save in back-to-back home league victories for only the second time since October, put Everton back in the race for seventh place. 3 Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? center_img no dice shining tense Arsenal missed the chance to rise to third in the Premier League after going down to a 1-0 defeat at Everton.Toffees captain Phil Jagielka – who was not even in the team 30 minutes before kick-off – scored a scrappy goal in a tight encounter at Goodison Park. REVEALED Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury 3 Calvert-Lewin gave the Arsenal defenders plenty to think about in the game Man United transfer news live: Haaland ‘wants a change’, two players off in January gameday cracker Ramsey missed a huge chance for Arsenal early in the second-half Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars last_img read more

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Decontamination demo planned at CKHADecontamination demo planned at CKHA

first_imgThe Chatham-Kent Health Alliance will host a demonstration of a patient decontamination system on Tuesday morning.The demonstration will be held in partnership with Harold Marcus Ltd., Chatham-Kent Emergency Medical Services, the Chatham-Kent Police Service and the Chatham-Kent Fire and Emergency Service.Harold Marcus Ltd. will conduct the demo of its decontamination chamber in the ambulance bay, located outside the emergency department at the Chatham site, the health alliance stated Monday.The purpose is to educate staff, physicians, volunteers, police, fire and emergency service personnel on the process of patient decontamination in the event of large-scale exposure of chemical, biohazard, radioactive and nuclear materials in the community.People attending the emergency department and visitors to the hospital on Monday will not be affected. All hospital entrances and departments will remain open with usual services provided.In the event of a large-scale exposure, the hospital would call a Code Orange, which sets out response procedures for external disasters that would cause a contaminated patient surge to the emergency department.The Chatham-Kent Health Alliance would also work in collaboration with emergency officials to establish logistics for decontamination.Last year, the health alliance held a mock Code Orange emergency preparedness exercise at the Chatham site that saw all staff within the mock area follow code procedures, with staff from the Wallaceburg site attending for additional training.Staff in all other units conducted table-top sessions to identify what action staff would take in a Code Orange emergency.tterfloth@postmedia.comTwitter.com/DailyNewsTTlast_img read more

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United to debut 787-10 on enhanced transcon routesUnited to debut 787-10 on enhanced transcon routes

first_imgA Boeing 787-10 on its first test flight. Photo: Boeing. United Airlines will debut the Boeing 787-10 Dreamliner on transcontinental flights between New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco as part of an enhanced schedule starting January 9.The first North American service of the Boeing’s newest Dreamliner comes as United has ordered a further nine 787-9s, pushing total orders for technologically advanced plane towards the 1400 mark.United will operate the bigger 787-10 on select flights between New York-Newark and Los Angeles and New York-Newark and San Francisco.It will also increase its transcontinental schedule by boosting the number of flights between New York and Los Angeles and San Francisco to 27 daily, adding more than 700 daily seats and 125 daily premium seats with better flight times.READ Singapore’s new 787-10 regional business class private and luxurious “We have created the best schedule for our business and leisure customers by offering more choice and more convenience when planning travel between coasts. Combined with the addition of our newest aircraft, the Boeing 787-10, the schedule enhancements build on United’s industry-leading onboard experience,” United vice president of domestic network planning and scheduling said in a statement.United is the North American carrier to operate the 787-10 which features 44 of the airline’s flagship United Polaris seats, 21 United premium Plus seats which will initially be sold as Economy Plus, 54 Economy Plus seats and 199 economy seats.The 787-10, which flies up to 6430 nautical miles and uses 20 percent less fuel than older generation planes, is part of a strategy by United to upgrade its fleet.It started flying the Dreamliner in 2012 and currently operates 25 787-9 aircraft, as well as 12 smaller 787-8s, that service intercontinental routes as Houston-Sydney and San Franciso-Singapore.It will have 40 Dreamliners in its fleet by year’s end with 24 on order.The additional nine aircraft it announced Monday are due to be delivered in 2020.Boeing said the latest order continued strong momentum for the Dreamliner family with net orders now above 100 for the year and just one shy of the 1400 mark since the beginning of the program.Nearly half of all 787 customers have returned to place repeat orders, making it the fastest-selling widebody jet in history“The 787 Dreamliner has been so successful in the marketplace because of great partners like United Airlines that have taken the airplane’s unrivaled performance to open new routes and offer passengers a wonderful travel experience,” said Ihssane Mounir, Boeing’s senior vice president of commercial sales & marketing.Separately, Qatar Airways has upgraded five of its current order of A350-900s to A350-1000s.The airline has already taken delivery of 27 A350-900s and three A350-1000s from a total order of 76 A350s.Qatar was the launch customer for both versions of the A350 and said the strong performance of the aircraft and the need for extra capacity were key factors in the latest announcement.last_img read more

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SHRM: Abandon NLRB Proposal to Speed Up Unionization ElectionsSHRM: Abandon NLRB Proposal to Speed Up Unionization Elections

first_imgHR executive tells House committee that proposal is a burden for employers and creates a disadvantage for employees WASHINGTON — A proposed rule by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to speed up union elections would limit employers’ ability to communicate with their employees and prevent employees from receiving the information they need to make informed decisions, the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) told the U.S. House Committee on Education and the Workforce today.“The rules should provide an employee with the opportunity to make an educated and informed decision to form, join or refrain from joining a labor organization. An employee should be able to hear from both the union and the employer,” human resources executive Steve Browne told the committee’s“Culture of Union Favoritism: The Return of the NLRB’s Ambush Election Rule”hearing. “Unless employers have adequate time to prepare their educational materials, employees will not have full information about the pros and cons of unionization.”The NLRB has proposed shortening the time between when a representation petition is filed with the NLRB and when a union election is held from an average of 38 days to as few as 10 days.Browne, executive director of human resources for LaRosa’s Inc., in Cincinnati, Ohio, told legislators that his company would not be prepared to effectively respond in the shortened period. The company has 1,200 employees in 15 locations in two states, Browne said, and a short time frame would mean that it could not adequately inform its employees about its perspective on the organizing effort before an election. “Whenever we communicate to our employees about workplace issues, a great deal of planning and preparation goes into the effort. In many situations, it requires multiple meetings over multiple days to make sure that we are able to communicate and educate our team members directly and to answer any questions they may have.”Speaking on behalf of the more than 275,000-member SHRM, Browne said, “SHRM believes that if the rule is adopted, it will create an imbalance between the rights of employees, employers and labor organizations in the pre-election period.”Browne, a SHRM Membership Advisory Council member and former state director of the Ohio SHRM State Council, also said it is equally troubling that there is no evidence the change is needed. “Data from the NLRB itself shows that union elections are held rather expeditiously, and the NLRB has not demonstrated why a 38-day average time period needs to be shortened,” he said.The procedural changes, which originally were proposed by the NLRB in 2011 and then invalidated by a federal court, also would require employers to more quickly provide union representatives with extensive private information about employees.“We believe this new requirement to provide so much confidential information about an employer’s employees constitutes an invasion of privacy for employees and an unnecessary data collection burden on employers,” Browne testified.SHRM’s testimony to the committee is available athttp://www.shrm.org/Advocacy/PublicPolicyStatusReports/Courts-Regulations/Documents/AE030514%20Ambush%20Election%20Hearing.pdf.SHRM’s comments to the NLRB about its proposed rule in 2011 are available athttp://www.shrm.org/Advocacy/PublicPolicyStatusReports/Courts-Regulations/Documents/NPRM%20(Representation%20Case%20Procedures).pdf.MEDIA: For more information or to schedule an interview, contact Kate Kennedy at kate.kennedy@shrm.org and 703-535-6260 and 703-862-5192 or Vanessa Gray at 703-535-6072 and Vanessa.gray@shrm.org.Follow SHRM Government Affairs on Twitter @SHRMATeam.About the Society for Human Resource ManagementFounded in 1948, the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is the world’s largest HR membership organization devoted to human resource management. Representing more than 275,000 members in over 160 countries, the Society is the leading provider of resources to serve the needs of HR professionals and advance the professional practice of human resource management. SHRM has more than 575 affiliated chapters within the United States and subsidiary offices in China, India and United Arab Emirates. Visit SHRM Online at www.shrm.org and follow us on Twitter @SHRMPress.last_img read more

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Meet the scientists running to transform Congress in 2018Meet the scientists running to transform Congress in 2018

first_imgBiochemist and congressional candidate Randy Wadkins meets voters in Columbus, Mississippi. The science candidates: races to watch in 2018 By Jeffrey MervisFeb. 22, 2018 , 2:00 PM For the moment, however, Wadkins is focused on getting his message out: Kelly has been all too willing to fall in line behind Trump and Republican leaders, and voters need someone who will fight for their interests. Doing so takes money—a precious commodity in his district.”I’m a Democrat running in one of the poorest districts in the poorest state in the nation,” he says. So, Wadkins has cast a wider net, with a fundraiser last fall in Silicon Valley—organized by a colleague who spent a year at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California—as well as the January event in the nation’s capital.Wadkins is no stranger to Washington, D.C. In 2015, he took a sabbatical year to work as a congressional science fellow for Representative Steve Cohen (D–TN) on health care issues. (The program is managed by AAAS, which publishes Science.)Although there were no high rollers in the crowd, which included several other former fellows, Wadkins was pleased to net $3000. That amount, added to the $55,000 he’d raised by that point, has been enough to fuel a campaign that competes for attention with his academic duties. But it is an order of magnitude less than many other candidates around the country have amassed.The lawyers, executives, and career politicians who typically seek federal office often enjoy long-cultivated and extensive networks of wealthy donors who fuel their campaigns. Scientists generally lack such networks. And once they reach out to their natural constituency, they quickly discover that the average scientist isn’t rich, isn’t used to contributing to a candidate, and isn’t politically active.”Most academics don’t make a lot of money,” says Molly Sheehan, a bioengineering postdoctoral researcher at the University of Pennsylvania. She’s running as a Democrat in the seventh congressional district of Pennsylvania, an open seat in suburban Philadelphia. “They also aren’t like lawyers, who view their political donations as a business expense and are willing to shell out $1000,” adds Sheehan, who as of 31 December 2017 had raised about $35,000 and loaned herself $170,000. “Academic scientists think that $100 is a big deal.” TENOLA PLAXICO Geologist Jess Phoenix, who is running for a House of Representatives seat in California, is running a bare bones campaign that emphasizes outreach on social media. Wadkins, who studies biomolecular structures to better understand cancer and how to treat it, is part of what some commentators are calling a historic groundswell of candidates with backgrounds in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). At the federal level, at least 60 science candidates are bidding for seats in Congress, according to 314 Action, a D.C.- based nonprofit advocacy group formed 2 years ago to encourage scientists to engage in politics. The candidates—mostly firsttimers running for House seats—include a physicist who spent 2 decades at a prominent national laboratory, a clinical oncologist at a top-rated cancer center, a former chemistry professor at a 4-year state college, a geologist trying to document every aspect of a tiny piece of the Mojave Desert, and a postdoctoral bioengineering fellow. Some 200 people with STEM backgrounds are also running for state legislative seats, 314 Action estimates, with a similar number vying for school board and other local- and county-level positions.Almost all are Democrats energized by what they regard as a rising antiscience sentiment pervading Washington, D.C. “I’m afraid we’re entering a dark era, with science, reason, and education under attack,” Wadkins told his supporters. “And I think members with scientific training can help prevent that.” Chemist Phil Janowicz, who is running for a U.S. House of Representatives seat in a district near Los Angeles, California, says raising money has been a major task. MATT GUSH KAREN CURTISS JESS PHOENIX CAMPAIGN Phil Janowicz, a former chemistry professor at California State University in Fullerton who is seeking the Democratic nomination for the 39th congressional district in southern California, typically spends mornings with political activists, in hopes of winning their backing. In the evenings and on weekends he’s knocking on doors and attending small gatherings to introduce himself to voters in a district that leans Republican, but went for Clinton in 2016. But the rest of his time is devoted to fundraising. “I wake up thinking about raising money, and I go to sleep thinking about raising money,” says Janowicz, who runs an education consulting business with his wife out of his home. “I will spend about 8 hours a day, 6 days a week, raising money.”Those efforts had generated $160,000 by the end of December 2017, and Janowicz has loaned his campaign an equal amount. That has allowed him to hire a full-time campaign manager and even open a small office—a luxury for some candidates.One science candidate who appears to have mastered the art of fundraising is Joseph Kopser, a 20-year Army veteran and entrepreneur with an engineering degree from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in New York. He is running as a Democrat in Texas’s 21st congressional district, a Republican stronghold in the central part of the state.Kopser had amassed $678,000 by the end of December 2017, far outpacing any of his three primary opponents. In fact, Kopser claims that his fundraising prowess pushed the Republican incumbent, Representative Lamar Smith, chairman of the House science committee, into deciding last fall not to seek a 17th term. (Smith’s official statement said simply that “this seems like a good time” to retire.)The size of a candidate’s war chest is an imperfect metric of their viability, notes election pundit Kondik. That’s especially true for primary elections, he says, which attract voters who are likely to be paying attention already. Instead of expensive ads aimed at swaying undecided voters, primaries require an army of volunteers trying to boost turnout among those already on your side. Still, Kondik notes dryly, “Every candidate would rather have more money than less.”Beyond money, candidates need a message that, ideally, both distinguishes them from their primary opponents and positions them for the general election. For those with science backgrounds, that message usually includes references to their training in analyzing large amounts of data, their adherence to evidence in weighing the issues, and their conviction that science and technology are essential to the country’s future.”I’m a father of three, a cancer doctor, and an award-winning researcher from MD Anderson [Cancer Center], and I deal with facts every day in my job” is how Jason Westin recently introduced himself at a candidates’ forum on climate change in Houston, Texas. Westin, who until recently ran clinical trials testing treatments for lymphoma, is running in a crowded field for the Democratic nomination in a House district—the seventh—that includes Houston’s affluent west side. The winner will challenge the veteran Republican incumbent, John Culberson.That potential matchup gives Westin another rhetorical target. “My first commercial describes how I will stand up to Trump and the Republican Congress against their attacks on science,” he says. “When I’m in Congress I’ll use facts and science to fight back for us.” I’m afraid we’re entering a dark era, with science, reason, and education under attack.center_img Meet the scientists running to transform Congress in 2018 Last month, Randy Wadkins prepared for the spring semester at the University of Mississippi by reviewing his notes for the advanced chemistry course he has taught for many years. Then the professor of biochemistry, who grew up near the university’s Oxford campus and received his Ph.D. there, forced himself to step outside his comfort zone: He flew to Washington, D.C., where he asked strangers for money.Wadkins is running for U.S. Congress, and his fundraiser took place in a neighborhood restaurant just a few kilometers from where he would like to be working come January 2019. Wadkins warmed up his small but enthusiastic audience with a story about picking peas as a child every Saturday on his grandparents’ farm to supplement his family’s meager pantry. It reflects his “I’m just an ordinary person like you” message to Democrats in Mississippi’s first congressional district, who on 5 June will choose a standard bearer to oppose the Republican incumbent in November.The candidate voiced his anger about the state of U.S. politics with the young professionals, who shared his distaste for the policies of President Donald Trump and the Republican majority in Congress. A dysfunctional and hyperpartisan House of Representatives, he told them, might work better if more of its 435 members were scientists like himself. Then came his pitch: “I’m here to help make that happen, and the first step is by taking your money.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The science vote Follow our rolling coverage of 2018’s science candidates. But first, science candidates must win their races. Most face long odds. For starters, voters may be impressed by a candidate’s scientific credentials, but such background is rarely a decisive factor when they go to the polls. In addition, most of this year’s STEM candidates are political novices who are starting out far behind their opponents when it comes to knowing how to run a professional campaign.The demographics of the district can also be a huge barrier. Even a well-funded and well-run campaign probably won’t be enough for a first-time Democratic candidate to win in a traditionally Republican district.Initially, the biggest challenge for most science candidates is raising money. Those running for a House seat should expect to spend at least $4 million in the general election, experts say, and that figure could be much higher in urban areas with costly media markets. A primary race traditionally costs much less, although this year some candidates have already raised more than $1 million with their primaries still months away.But politicos say the usual rules might not apply this year. Democratic leaders are hoping for a wave election, one in which they can flip enough Republican seats to gain control of the House and, if things go especially well, the Senate. And scientific expertise may be more important than usual, muses Kyle Kondik, managing editor of Sabato’s Crystal Ball, a widely read election tip sheet run by Larry Sabato, a political scientist at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.”Voters are often looking for something that they don’t have now,” says Kondik, who is based in Washington, D.C. “And to the extent that the Trump administration is seen as anti-intellectual, a candidate with a scientific or medical background may seem like an attractive alternative.”The first big test for this cohort of science candidates comes on 6 March, when Texas holds the nation’s first primary elections. Several candidates are running to become Democratic nominees in that Lone Star state’s House districts. Primaries in other states stretch into September, and then there are only 2 months before the nationwide general election on 6 November.Wadkins likes his chances in his Mississippi primary, where to date only one other person has thrown their hat into the ring. (The filing deadline is 1 March.) But Wadkins knows that even if he wins his party’s nomination, he’ll face a steep climb in trying to unseat Representative Trent Kelly (R). Trump won the district by 33 points over Democrat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential race, and Kelly beat his Democratic challenger by an even bigger margin. First up: Texas primaries on 6 March Randy Wadkins, U.S. House of Representatives candidate Physicist Elaine DiMasi hopes to represent Long Island, New York. Last summer, for example, physicist Elaine DiMasi gave up a tenured position at the Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, to run in the first congressional district of New York on Long Island. (As a federal employee she couldn’t do both.) That was a gamble, as election handicappers say she is a long shot in her bid to win the Democratic nomination and take on two-term incumbent Representative Lee Zeldin (R).DiMasi works on deciphering the structures of biological materials using Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source. It requires persistence and attention to detail, traits that have also proved useful as a candidate. “Politics is about showing up,” DiMasi says. “I would go into a room of influential people, and the first three times I showed up they didn’t care. But on the fourth time, they’d say, ‘Oh good, Elaine’s here.’ A scientist might well wonder: ‘What did I do differently?’ I simply offered myself.”Such persistent networking is part of the interpersonal skills—she calls them the “politics part of a campaign”—that are separate from the nuts and bolts of running for office. And it doesn’t come naturally. “You can only learn it from experience,” she says.In Texas, cancer researcher Westin hasn’t totally quit his state-funded job. Instead, he handed off his clinical trials to colleagues and reduced his clinical hours to 1 day a week. He did so, he says, to make sure that nobody could argue that “the state of Texas was paying me to run for office.” The schedule has left him 6 days a week to campaign.On 6 March, Westin will find out whether that was enough. Regardless of whether he and others succeed, however, those who want the science community to become more active in politics see this year’s campaigns as a wonderful opportunity for scientists to apply their skills and experience in a new realm. “We’re part of a profound experiment,” DiMasi says, “and I love that.” First up: Texas primaries on 6 MarchLone Star state holds nation’s first tests Such words are sure to resonate with the research community. But there is little evidence that a candidate’s views on science influence how people vote. Savvy candidates must find a way to apply their scientific knowledge to issues—the economy, health care, immigration, national security, and such social issues as abortion and same-sex marriage—that voters do care about, says political scientist Norm Ornstein, a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C. Along the way, he adds, they need to avoid talking down to voters and coming across as know-it-alls.Kopser, for one, appears to be taking such advice to heart. In remarks and campaign materials, he emphasizes his military and business experience and focuses on top-tier issues such as health care and jobs. Kopser, who founded and sold a transit company focused on optimizing urban commuting, also calls himself a “clean energy warrior” and highlights the need to address climate change. But the campaign is careful to talk about climate in ways it hopes will resonate with different blocs of voters, says Ian Rivera, Kopser’s campaign manager.”When we’re in downtown Austin, we talk about rising sea levels … and other broad environmental impacts,” he explains—a topic important to urban, liberal audiences. With veterans, climate becomes “a question of national security. … We talk about how changing climate patterns dried up crops in eastern Syria,” helping fuel the rise of the Islamic State group. In rural Gillespie County, climate is “a pocketbook issue” because peach farmers there “are selling North Carolina peaches at their farmers’ markets because the [Texas] winter never got cold enough to kill the pests.”Money does allow a candidate to use paid advertising to amplify key talking points. Westin, for example, is using excerpts from a short campaign video for 30-second ads on CNN. “It’s not possible to knock on 700,000 doors,” he explains. “And CNN is a rich target. Our polling shows that most voters don’t really know any of us.”Candidates with fewer resources, however, are pursuing less expensive ways of getting out their message. Their efforts include large doses of door knocking and community events, and heavy use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter.”I think I can reach people through social media,” says Jess Phoenix, a geologist running in a strong Democratic field for the chance to oust Republican Steve Knight from the 25th congressional district in California, which covers the northern suburbs of Los Angeles. Political groups gave her a lot of advice on how to structure her campaign, she says, but “it wasn’t working for me because it all relies on having an extensive donor network of rich people. … I want to have my campaign funded by regular people. If that means I have to do things on a shoestring budget, I will.”Phoenix has already applied that barebones approach to a research project she and her husband launched 5 years ago. Dubbed Blueprint Earth, its goal is to catalog everything from soil microbes to clouds in a 1-square-kilometer patch of the Mojave Desert. But she acknowledges that running for Congress has required a whole new level of social media presence.Patrick Madden, a professor of computer science at the State University of New York in Binghamton, thinks he has found a way to help Phoenix and other scientists amplify their reach on social media. Madden, a Democrat, found himself with some unexpected free time last fall after he dropped his bid to represent New York’s 22nd congressional district to make way for another candidate backed by the party. He’s used it to develop a website, activeresist.com, that allows science-based candidates to promote two or three news stories each day.In essence, Madden says, his software is a twist on the same techniques that Russian operatives and others have used to spread fake news and try to influence elections through social media. But instead of bots pushing content into users’ newsfeeds, the retweets and likes will come from real people, including voters in their districts.No matter how effective social media might be at reaching voters, it can’t replace the blood, sweat, tears, and face time that a candidate must put in. And for many science candidates, that has meant abandoning or dramatically reducing their professional activities to take up politics. By Jeffrey MervisThis year’s race to control the U.S. Congress kicks off with a 6 March primary election in Texas, and scientists are among the contenders.In the seventh congressional district on Houston’s affluent west side, clinical oncologist Jason Westin is one of four candidates seen as having a good shot at the Democratic nomination for a seat in the House of Representatives. In November, the winner will oppose Republican incumbent John Culberson, who heads a House subcommittee that sets budgets for science agencies including NASA and the National Science Foundation. Culberson has coasted to victory since his first race in 2000. But the district’s voters preferred Democrat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential race, and Democrats believe a strong candidate could beat him.In the 21st congressional district in central Texas, the retirement of Representative Lamar Smith, the Republican chairman of the House science committee, has set off a feeding frenzy. Eighteen candidates are vying for a chance to retain Republican control of a district that stretches from southern Austin to northern San Antonio.Four Democrats are hoping an antiRepublican wave election could allow one of them to capture the open seat. In the mix are Joseph Kopser, an Army veteran and entrepreneur with an engineering degree, and Mary Wilson, a former mathematics professor turned minister.In a third contest, Jon Powell, a retired geologist, is seeking the Democratic nomination in southeastern Texas’s 36th district, now represented by Republican Brian Babin. But Powell is a decided underdog: He badly trails his Democratic challenger in raising money, and the eventual nominee will face long odds, as the district is one of the most Republican in the nation.last_img read more

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Farmers, tourists, and cattle threaten to wipe out some of the world’s last hunter-gatherersFarmers, tourists, and cattle threaten to wipe out some of the world’s last hunter-gatherers

first_img Post-1950 settlements The Hadza are just a touchstone for so much. Mangola By Ann GibbonsMay. 17, 2018 , 10:00 AM (TOP TO BOTTOM) CARBON TANZANIA; MATTHIEU PALEY (2) The Hadza’s hunting and gathering lifestyle fosters a diverse microbiome that researchers study with oral swabs and by sampling fecal matter. 25 Hadza men hunt on a ridge above the Yaeda Valley in Tanzania. A shrinking homeland The Hadza hold deeds to a Brooklyn-size territory where they can hunt and gather, but this is only a fraction of their historic homeland. Today, farmers and pastoralists seeking grazing rights press in on all sides. It is a tragic story that has played out many times before as hunter-gatherers around the world have been displaced by more politically powerful settlers. Although the Hadza have proved resilient in the past, researchers warn that they now face a daunting convergence of threats.Their Brooklyn-size territory is being encroached on by pastoralists whose cattle drink their water and graze on their grasslands, farmers clearing woodlands to grow crops, and climate change that dries up rivers and stunts grass. All those pressures drive away the antelope, buffalo, and other wildlife the Hadza hunt. “If there are no animals, how are we going to feed our people?” asks Shani Msafir Sigwazi, a Hadza who is a law student at Tumaini University Makumira in Arusha, Tanzania. “How are we going to protect our life in the bush?””The last 5 years have drastically altered the landscape politically, socially, and ecologically,” says human behavioral ecologist Alyssa Crittenden of the University of Nevada in Las Vegas, who has studied the Hadza since 2004. “It’s clear to anyone who goes out to see the Hadza that we’re dealing with small populations being pinched on all sides.”Worried about the Hadza’s plight, researchers wonder about their responsibilities to the people they have studied intensively for decades. Many researchers are seeking ways to help, even as they vie to study the few Hadza who still hunt and gather full time. But some researchers have stopped fieldwork altogether, saying the Hadza lifestyle has changed too much. “The narrative that they are perfect hunter-gatherers has been eroding since the first researchers have worked with them,” says paleobiologist Amanda Henry of Leiden University in the Netherlands, who has studied Hadza gut bacteria and diet; her team is not returning.From the very first, researchers who studied the Hadza realized they were walking a tightrope—studying a traditional way of life that their very presence risked altering. James Woodburn was a 23-year-old graduate student in 1957, when he became the first anthropologist to study the Hadza. He quickly realized that the tire tracks of his Land Rover created new paths for the Hadza, so he sold it and walked everywhere with them instead. “I was most anxious not to affect their nomadic movements,” says Woodburn, now retired from the London School of Economics.All the Hadza he saw then were nomadic hunter-gatherers who ranged across 1000 square kilometers of bush, an area 20% larger than New York City. Yet even then, they were losing their traditional lands at a great rate, Woodburn says, and had less than half the 2500 square kilometers they inhabited when German geographer Erich Obst met them in 1911. Lake Eyasi MATTHIEU PALEY YAEDA VALLEY IN TANZANIA—As we hike down a rocky slope, through thorny acacias that snag our clothes and past the emaciated carcass of a cow, we hear people singing. We are approaching a small camp of Hadza hunter-gatherers, and our Tanzanian guide thinks they must be celebrating something.But as we near a few huts made of branches and draped with mosquito netting, a slender woman in a worn T-shirt and sari totters toward us. “She is drunk,” says Killerai Munka, our guide.The woman calls her children, and as she puts their small hands inside ours we get a sour whiff of diarrhea. That’s when she tells Munka that her youngest child—a baby boy—died the night before. “He wanted to sleep some more and didn’t wake up,” Munka translates from Swahili.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)A couple of pastoralist men, probably members of the local Datoga tribe, are also visiting. They carry wooden staffs, wear brass hoop earrings, and have brought a bottle of homemade alcohol. They have traded that bottle, and likely others, for honey gathered by the Hadza, who by now have had too much to drink.Times are hard for the Hadza, who include some of the last people on the planet to live as nomadic hunter-gatherers.Their way of life has been a magnet for researchers for 60 years, and the subject of hundreds of scholarly papers, because it may offer the closest analog to the way our African ancestors lived. The iconic lifestyle persists: Just that morning in another Hadza camp called Sengele, an hour’s walk away, women and children were digging tuberous roots for food. Men were gathering honey by smoking out bees from baobab trees. But that lifestyle is quickly disappearing.Today, of roughly 1000 Hadza living in the dry hills here between salty Lake Eyasi and the Rift Valley highlands, only about 100 to 300 still hunt and gather most of their food. Most of the others do forage—but they also buy, trade, or are given food, and sometimes alcohol and marijuana. Many live part of the year in larger semipermanent camps in the sprawling settlement of Mangola, where they depend on income from tourism and occasional jobs on farms or as guards.Most Hadza now go to school for a few years, speak Swahili in addition to their own click language, and wear donated Western clothes. Some carry cellphones. But, “They are not integrating into a normal rural Tanzanian life,” says evolutionary anthropologist Colette Berbesque of the University of Roehampton in London, who has studied the Hadza since 2007. Instead, she says, they are “transitioning to a life where they’re at the absolute bottom of the barrel.” A few signs of cooperation have emerged. Three Datoga are working with seven Hadza youth to patrol grazing on Hadza land. “They are cooperating in a peaceful way to make sure there isn’t another fight between the Hadza and Datoga,” Meitaya says.But the threat from cattle is not the only force driving the Hadza from their ancestral land. Marina Butovskaya, a physical anthropologist from the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, is stunned at how quickly woodland is being cleared for farming at the edges of Hadza land. “When we arrived there, in 2003, there was only bush, and there were plenty of wild animals,” she recalls. “Now, along the road to Mangola, it’s fields, fields, fields.”In her 5 months in the Mangola area, between September 2017 and February 2018, new power lines (which allow irrigation equipment) attracted an influx of farmers. They used tractors to clear a swath of land 10 kilometers closer to Hadza land. “You cannot imagine how fast it’s going,” Butovskaya says.When the land is cleared, wild animals lose habitat, leaving fewer to hunt. The farmers also cut down wild fruit trees on which the Hadza depend, they told Wood recently. To survive, some Hadza take handouts of maize flour from missionaries or trade meat and honey for flour to make porridge. Or they head to one of a dozen “tourist camps” in the Mangola region, where they earn money by re-enacting their traditional ways. Thanks to a newly improved road, tourists from Ngorongoro Conservation Area, which draws 400,000 people a year, can “bomb down” to see the Hadza in Mangola in 1.5 hours, Peterson says.Researchers are well aware of the irony that their research, which made the Hadza famous, also draws tourists, which in turn encourages the Tanzanian government to build roads. “If we never studied the Hadza, would they have been better off?” Hawkes wonders.The tourism has a toxic impact. In the roughly 3 weeks that ecological anthropologist Haruna Yatsuka of Nihon University in Mishima, Japan, was in a tourist camp in Mangola in 2013, 40 tourist parties came from 19 nations. The tourists began arriving at 6 a.m. and watched the Hadza hunt (for show—they seldom got meat when with tourists), dig up tubers, or perform dances. In one camp, Hadza wore baboon skins, which is not their traditional dress but fits tourist expectations, Leach says. The Hadza also got money by selling souvenirs such as bead bracelets, or from tips. “Tourism now brings income to the Hadza and has had a tremendous effect on their livelihood, diet, residence, and nomadic patterns,” Yatsuka says.She observed the most destructive impact as soon as the tourists left in midafternoon, when the Hadza used their earnings to buy alcohol. “Everybody drinks: pregnant women, breastfeeding women, the men,” says Monika Abels, a developmental psychologist at Tilburg University in the Netherlands, who compared child development between a tourist camp and Hadza bush camps. Sometimes the drinking starts early in the day, the children don’t get fed, and drunk men beat women, Abels says.Blurton-Jones has noted higher rates of alcoholism, disease, and early death for Hadza living in Mangola than in the bush. The Hadza themselves recognize that trend, and complain about being “tired” in camp, Yatsuka says. Turnover is high, as Hadza go into the bush to recover. Yatsuka is now studying how competition to sell souvenirs affects the Hadza’s egalitarian culture. What happens when one Hadza woman makes money but another doesn’t?All those changes also affect research. Leach and others must stop data collection when missionaries give Hadza grain or antibiotics. “I think the way some of the recent papers report the situation they’re studying is bordering on not very honest,” Blurton-Jones says. “They need to tell us how much maize they get, how often do they get alcohol, how often do tourists come.”Others agree: “In my tenure, I’ve seen dramatic, dramatic change,” Berbesque says. “There are Hadza keeping chickens; they have cellphones. It’s not necessarily bad … but they are not pristine hunter-gatherers anymore.” She has cut back her study of dietary preferences and will not take new students to study the Hadza until more protections are in place. Abels, too, probably will not return. ANNETTE WAGNER FROM FILMING OF TINDIGA—THOSE WHO ARE RUNNING AND HADZABE MEANS: US PEOPLE The outside world encroaches on Hadza land in many ways: A Hadza scout records cattle intruding on their lands using a GPS camera (top); Hadza put on baboon skins to impress a Lithuanian tourist in a camp in Mangola (bottom right); and a Hadza atop a truck watches a Maasai herder on a track through Hadza country (bottom left). Grazing agreements with Datoga Expanding farmlandcenter_img Ngorongoro crater LakeEyasi Still, Woodburn recalls an “exceptional abundance of game” in the 1960s, including “a herd of 400 elephants, also lots of rhino, hyenas, lions, and many, many other animals.” At the time, he found, the Hadza were healthier than farmers and herders, as he reported at the famous “Man the Hunter” symposium in Chicago, Illinois, in 1966. And although the Hadza traded with their agricultural neighbors, exchanging meat and skins for beads, pots, and iron knives, few people from other tribes had settled on their land. They did not intermarry much and kept to themselves.The Hadza also resisted many attempts by governments and missionaries to move them into settlements to become farmers. So many Hadza died of infectious diseases in camps in the 1960s that Woodburn worried they would be wiped out. But survivors always left the camps to return to the bush.Woodburn realized that farming was antithetical to the Hadza’s egalitarian values, as he described in a landmark paper in 1982 in the journal Man. He noted that they were vigilant in preventing any single person from acquiring assets or wealth, or asserting power or status over others. They shared the food they hunted and gathered the same day or soon after in an “immediate return” system. Woodburn contrasted that approach with “delayed return” societies, in which individuals invest in building personal assets that pay off later—for example, spending perhaps weeks crafting a boat and then storing caught fish for many months. Such societies, he argued, more readily adopt farming or herding, which allow individuals to acquire power, rank, and wealth.The Hadza are not living fossils “lost at the bottom of the Rift Valley for thousands of years,” says Nicholas Blurton-Jones, professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), who did fieldwork with the Hadza from 1982 to 2000. They also have evolved over the millennia and long ago adopted new tools, such as metal arrowheads and cooking pots. But in their rich and relatively undisturbed savanna home, the Hadza have offered a steady stream of researchers a unique view of the way of life and selection pressures that “many have suggested brought our species into being,” he says. Grazing land Km (GRAPHIC) N. DESAI/SCIENCE; (DATA) DAUDI PETERSON/DOROBO FUND; CARBON TANZANIA Hadza-controlled land Kristen Hawkes, The University of Utah Tanzania Over the years, studies of the Hadza have revealed that grandmothers’ food production boosts child survival so mothers can bear more children; that men prefer to hunt large game because having reputations as good meat providers makes them desirable mates and allies; and that hunter-gatherer children forage for enough food that they are “cheap” to raise, boosting fertility and population. “The Hadza are just a touchstone for so much,” says anthropologist Kristen Hawkes of The University of Utah in Salt Lake City, who did fieldwork with the Hadza from 1984 to the early 1990s.Today, at least a dozen research groups from around the world have permits to study the Hadza. One is led by Jeff Leach, a visiting research fellow at King’s College London, who helped show that the Hadza have more diverse gut bacteria than people on a Western diet do. “East Africa is ground zero for the human microbiome,” he says. “With the Hadza, who are exposed to the urine, blood, and feces of every animal they hunt, you can get a picture of all the microbes on that landscape.”Other studies focus on their lifestyle. Crittenden recently found that Hadza men who switched to an agricultural diet suffered less dental decay (probably because they ate less honey), but that women and children ended up with more cavities. A team led by UCLA biological anthropologist Brian Wood, who has studied the Hadza since 2004, learned that they use only as much energy every day as sedentary Westerners, suggesting that hunting and gathering can be remarkably efficient; and that the Hadza sleep less than recommended in Western guidelines.Even as studies proceed, the Hadza’s future is darkening. The biggest threat comes from farmers and pastoralists and their cattle encroaching on Hadza land. In 2011, after years of negotiation between a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) and government officials, the Tanzanian commissioner for lands gave the Hadza rights to a 230-square-kilometer area. That was a major victory, but the egalitarian Hadza have lacked the leadership or organization to protect their land.”When you look at the Hadza, we have no leaders to represent us in government,” Sigwazi says. Local governments enforce land and grazing rights, and the Hadza have far fewer representatives on village councils than the Datoga or Iraqw farmers who live nearby. As a result, the Hadza have had to agree to give away grazing rights on their land in the dry season. The laws do prevent the free-for-all hunting on Hadza land that happened in the mid-1980s when many elephants were poached, says Daudi Peterson, co-founder of Dorobo Safaris and the Dorobo Fund, which uses fees from research and sustainable tourism to protect wildlife and fund health care and education for the Hadza and other groups. (Science paid fees to the fund to visit Hadza land.) However, he adds, “Flagrant abuse of the laws” by herders has taken place.The Hadza are particularly concerned about Datoga pastoralists who let their cattle graze on grass and drink from water holes on Hadza land year-round. In one Hadza camp, a woman named Tutu pointed to her people’s huts. Their tree-branch frames were draped with clothes and bark instead of the traditional grass thatch. “The cows eat all the grass,” she explained.The Datoga are also moving in, building bomas—mud-walled huts encircled by acacia-thorn fences that contain livestock at night—near water sources. The settlements keep the nonconfrontational Hadza and their prey away from the water. “You can see from Google Earth where Datoga bomas are and how the Hadza—especially the women—adjust their spatial behavior to avoid them,” Wood says.”The Datoga come here and take over the area—they put in their permanent houses,” said a Hadza man named Shakwa. “Our land is getting smaller and smaller. It is not like a human being that gets pregnant and can give us more and more land.”The incursions, with cattle grazing deep in the bush, have worsened in the past 3 years because of climate change, which has displaced the Datoga and other herders from lands outside the district, says Partala Dismas Meitaya, who works for the Ujamaa Community Resource Team in Arusha, the local NGO that negotiated the land rights. Half the Datoga’s cattle died on their own grazing lands during the last rainy season from November 2017 to mid-January, which was unseasonably hot and dry. Their hardship makes them resent the rights deeded to the Hadza. “People ask, ‘Why are the Hadza—a small number of people—taking a big part of the land?’” Meitaya says. “‘Why don’t they share the land?’” Hadza region in the late 1950s 0 HUMAN FOOD PROJECT Nick Blurton-Jones (right) learns about the extensive support Hadza grandmothers give grandchildren as he interviews a great-grandmother (second from left) and her younger kinswoman (second from right) in 1999. Farmers, tourists, and cattle threaten to wipe out some of the world’s last hunter-gatherers Some researchers think scientists have asked too much of the Hadza. “A woman said to me, ‘My body is tired,’” Crittenden says. “‘I’m tired giving my hair, my poop, my spit, my urine.’” Crittenden believes researchers now have a duty to their longtime subjects. “The Hadza have been desperately asking researchers to help them,” she says, noting that Hadza have approached her at least a dozen times in the past few years for help with political advocacy, land rights, health care, and education.Most researchers do step up. “You end up doing humanitarian work,” Leach says. “I’m buying school clothes for 100 kids.”The top priority is to stop incursions on Hadza land so people who want to hunt and gather can continue to do so. One approach is to engage with local government and others on the Hadza’s behalf. For example, Wood spoke with missionaries in 2014 who wanted to drill a well in an area that was “basically the last stand for the Hadza” who live in the bush. He told them a well would draw Datoga to water their cattle and thus harm the Hadza. But intervening carries risks, Wood warns: Evicting the Datoga and others from Hadza land could trigger a backlash.Wood and other researchers are taking steps to respond to Hadza who increasingly want more say in who studies them and what kinds of studies are done. “What advantage do we get from your study?” Sigwazi asks. “I want to know the results of my poo. Tell us your important results.”Crittenden and Berbesque hope to help the Hadza develop a code of ethics like one unveiled last year by the San people of southern Africa, another intensively studied group. That code requires that the San Council approve and manage research protocols, says Bob Hitchcock, an anthropologist at The University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, who helped the San draft it. But Hitchcock foresees a challenge with the Hadza, who “don’t have the same level of representation, the coordinated body” to do this, he says.Researchers are sharply divided over a code, in part because many think scientists do more good than harm. They note that in 2007, scientists helped organize protests when the Tanzanian government evicted the Hadza from some of their land, proposing to turn it into a private hunting park for the United Arab Emirates’s royal family. They also disagree that the Hadza are overstudied, arguing that many teams are there only for a month or so and don’t overlap much. “I’m the only researcher in the field right now,” Wood says.As researchers, Hadza, and others consider how best to move forward, they agree on one thing: “It is important that every Hadza individual has the opportunity to choose a lifestyle for themselves,” says Woodburn, who at age 84 still returns to camp with Hadza friends every few years. Sigwazi says: “I want to protect the culture of my people so the Hadza can enjoy their life—so they can wake up in the morning and hunt in the bush. It’s a simple life, but a kind of wonderful life.”last_img read more

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